Expectations of Security Camera Images

By:  Newcomb & Boyd Special Technologies Group

One of the most challenging aspects of designing modern video surveillance systems involves managing the Owner’s expectations. With the prevalence of large flat monitors and televisions in homes and the creative license of shows like CSI and NCIS, it is expected that security video cameras deployed on a site will provide crystal clear images where identification of a perpetrator will be possible regardless of the ambient light levels, weather conditions, or the perpetrator’s distance from the camera.

We have become use to the high definition screens: we see the news commentator on our home television with incredible detail, and football players performing on the field with close-up, slow motion and even stop action crystal clarity. Furthermore, we see the CSI lab scientist take a distorted reflection of an assailant off the chrome fender of a car and “enhance it” such that it becomes a courtroom worthy image of the perpetrator. So why shouldn’t security video cameras provide the same performance? While most realize that the sitcom and movie makers take some creative license and exaggerate the realities, daily exposure to this media creates unrealistic expectations.

Budget Battles

Construction is expensive, whether it’s the renovation of an existing building or complex, construction of new facilities, or an upgrade of a campus security system. With each of these cases, multiple disciplines are battling for available construction dollars. While security is seen as more critical than in past years, it is often thought of as the necessary evil, and most Owners do not want to spend any more money than necessary. However, when budget limitations are weighed against performance of the video surveillance system, too often the client’s specific expectations for each camera location are left undiscussed. This can result in a surprised and unhappy client when facial recognition is not achievable for the perpetrator of a crime in their parking lot. It may be a conscious decision not to have facial recognition for distant locations in the parking lot, once costs and other factors are discussed, but then the client won’t be surprised.

Performance in Low Ambient Light

One critical factor is the camera’s performance in various ambient light conditions. While low light performance capabilities have become quite good in some cameras, they are not so good in others. It’s a matter of physics. Specifically when larger pixel counts are spread over a single ⅓-inch sensor, each pixel receives less of the incoming light. When you divide a ⅓-inch sensor into 307,200 pixels (640 x 480), you have much larger pixels on the chips than when you divide that same size sensor into 5,038,848 pixels (2592 x 1944). The larger the pixel surface area, the more light it receives from the lens.

Better sensors have compensated for some of the inherent light degradation caused by larger pixel counts, but currently the better performance in low light situations seems to be limited to 1.3 megapixel cameras. Beyond this pixel count, the light availability has to be considerably greater to prevent excessive noise (image degradation) in the video image, and subsequent high bandwidth consumption.

In many cases, high quality video can be obtained by increasing ambient light levels and ensuring that the direction the light strikes potential intruders is commensurate with the direction of the video coverage. Where there is a concern for night time light levels, light pollution, or even energy use, supplemental light in the form of infrared lighting may be the solution. Still, care must be taken to insure the camera will go into night mode (producing a monochrome image) and remove the IR cut filter, for the infrared lighting to be of use. Thermal imaging cameras are another possible solution, but will be discussed in a later post.

Where existing ambient lighting conditions are questionable in terms of video camera choices available, a “live” onsite video image comparison of video from the various cameras may be warranted. Here various cameras from multiple manufacturers are set up side-by-side to observe the resulting images achieved under night-time conditions. The assistance of an integrator that installs multiple lines of cameras and has a stake in the outcome can be helpful. For example, on a recent campus upgrade project our firm had an integrator bring in multiple camera lines to test the quality of video achievable in low pressure sodium lighting. It was determined that infrared lighting would be needed. Infrared lighting units were brought in to test the theory. The results were not great, but were acceptable. All of this was done with Owner’s representatives onsite to view the results (from the facilities and the security departments). Again, the goal was to have no surprises.

The Reality of Image Detail

The reality of pulling image detail out of a live or recorded video image is limited by the fact that the detail must be in the image from the start. If we have a video image that contains 640 x 480 pixels (VGA), and take ¼ of the area (320 x 240 pixels) of the image and enlarge it (or blow it up) to be displayed on a 1920 x 1080 full-HD display, the video processor will produce many identical pixels for each single VGA pixel (effectively simply enlarging each pixel) creating a pixelated image.

A better way of defining image detail is by pixel density on a target (pixels per foot or pixels per meter). The 20 pixels/foot image in Figure 1 illustrates the kind of pixelization mentioned above. To obtain the level of image detail needed, we must select a camera and lens combination that will provide sufficient pixels per foot or pixels on target, whether that need be an identification, recognition, monitoring, or detection level of image detail.

If a camera’s purpose is simply to detect the presence of someone, 10 pixels per foot (33 pixels per meter) may be sufficient for an operator to detect a human presence. If the camera’s purpose is simply to monitor activity, 20 pixels per foot (66 pixels per meter) may allow the operator to discern some level of general activity. If face or license plate recognition is required, at least 45 pixels per foot (148 pixels per meter) should be obtained. Figure 1 illustrates the difference in image detail at various levels from 20 pixels per foot (66 pixels per meter) to 100 pixels per foot (328 pixels per meter). This image detail should be retrievable from either a live or archived image.

Figure 1. Image detail illustrated in Pixels/Foot or Pixels/Meter (image courtesy of Avigilon)

With the numerous possible camera and lens combinations, proper selection and application of the many possible camera types and formats can be a daunting task. This is made somewhat easier with special software that calculates the pixels per foot of the various views and illustrates the detail level with color coded field-of-view lines and crosshatching. These coded coverage patterns can be superimposed over drawings or Google Earth images if a scale is provided. Figure 2 illustrates this concept where the color codes indicate the following:

  1. Detecting: image detail of 10 pixels per foot (33 pixels per meter) required (color coded light blue).
  2. Monitoring: image detail of 20 pixels per foot (66 pixels per meter) required (color coded light green).
  3. Recognizing (a known person): image detail of 45 pixels per foot (148 pixels per meter) required (color coded light yellow).
  4. Identifying (an unknown person): image detail of 50 to 60 pixels per foot (165 to 197 pixels per meter) required (color coded light red).

Figure 2. Coverage pattern illustration

Figure 3 shows the various levels of image detail produced by a full HD (1920 x 1080 pixels) camera with a 4 mm focal length lens, and a ⅓-inch sensor when scaled and superimposed over a Google Earth image of a parking lot.

Figure 4 illustrates a simulated 3D screen display of human targets at the edges of these zones. As the figure indicates, the small human target at the edge of the detection zone is difficult to see. Most likely a human operator would not notice this person unless the clothing worn is highly contrasted with the background. Video analytics may detect the target, but that is another topic for another day.

Figure 3. Coverage pattern superimposed over Google Earth image

Figure 4. Computer simulation of image size on screen

Figure 5. Revit family for security video camera

Some camera manufacturers have now created Revit families for their camera products that have parameters that allow the designer to model the camera view inside the Revit 3D Model.

Figure 5 shows an example screenshot of one of the family parameters chart. In this case Axis has provided a model of their Axis Model P3346 indoor recessed ceiling mount camera.

Figure 6 shows the camera’s angle of coverage in plan in plan view. Since the camera contains a varifocal lens the camera’s angle of coverage can be changed within the parameters of the camera.

Figure 7 shows the 3D rendering of the cameras view based on the 3D model of the building’s interior also generated by the Revit Model. Images like these are invaluable in explaining what the owner might expect to see in terms of areas covered and size of objects on the display.

Figure 6. Plan view from Revit file showing camera coverage angle

Figure 7. 3D rendering of anticipated view associated with camera in Figure 5

Conclusion

Daily exposure to high definition television media and police drama shows (like CSI and NCIS) may create unrealistic expectations as to what we will obtain when we implement a video surveillance system. The battle to get a budget that will provide the client with an acceptable image will generally involve a lot of discussions, illustrations of potential images based on camera types, camera and lens combinations, ambient light levels, and compromises. To prevent our clients from being disappointed when they view the implemented system, we must educate our clients in the reality of the situation. Specific discussions for each camera as to the desired results (identification, recognition, monitoring, or detection), the subsequent costs, and other variables that may affect the outcome will go a long way toward having a satisfied client.

New: Security Management & Consultancy

Interim security Management Service

Every company needs to deal with crime and the accompanying measures at some point. You can’t get around it, but preventing and confining damage requires knowledge. Big enterprises often employ a security manager, but small and medium-sizes companies are too small to hire somebody fulltime. Simply because security isn’t a fulltime task or because the expenses are too high.

Security is a priority
In many cases an IT specialist, human research manager or CEO manages security. This is only logical, but not always the best option: you won’t hire an accountant to do your shopping, right? Every person has his own expertise and security being a sideshow makes your company an easy target.

Hiring a security advisor can provide a solution, but the rates are often a significant hurdle. Thus, overall safety often disappears to the background resulting in severe damage when something does happen. Preventing is always the better way.

Pay for what you need
Innotech understands that a small or medium-sized company won’t always be able to spend a fixed amount of money on security. We also know that security advises and measurements for your company don’t always take a lot of time. Therefore, we offer the option to provide professional advice and guidance for every company and every budget.

What do we offer? At Innotech you can determine every month how much hours you wish to hire our security manager. This way you won’t have to exceed your budget, but you will be secured and receive professional advice. Moreover, you’ll also receive a discount!

What can we do for you?
– Threat and vulnerability exercises
– Policy and procedure check-ups and development
– Security audits
– Training
– Security policies
– Security masterplans
– Designing a suitable security system

By choosing in advance how many hours you want to purchase, you’ll also receive a discount ascending to 25% of our regular fee. What else can we do for you?!

Are you interested in our flexible security services? Just contact us for more information!

QSR Video Surveillance Best Practices

Fast food restaurants or QSRs (quick service restaurants), are frequent victims of crime and fraud. Because they are open late, deal with cash, and are designed to be exited quickly, they make attractive robbery targets. In this article, we examine best practices for QSR surveillance, including:

  • Camera placement
  • Food preparation areas
  • Offices and safes
  • Stockroom and storage areas
  • Restroom
  • Drive through lane
  • Minimizing camera counts
  • Protecting the recorder
  • Viewing the video

Camera Placement

The main areas QSR operators need to monitor are

  • Cash registers
  • Food preparation areas
  • Offices and safes
  • Stockrooms and storage areas

Cash Registers

QSRs make attractive targets for robberies because they tend to keep cash on hand, be open late at night, and have convenient entrances and exits. Drive through windows make particularly good targets, as the perpetrator can demand money through the window and then run away.

A surveillance camera should be mounted above the cash register, facing the customer. The field of view should be wide enough to include the cash register screen, cash drawer, as well as the customer. Pixels per foot/meter should be high enough to capture a clear image of a suspect’s face.

Sweethearting, the practice of not charging or undercharging for merchandise, is a common issue but difficult to manually track. Once a manager or owner notices an accounting discrepancy, it can be very difficult to prove. POS integration for the cash register camera can help prove sweethearting. This associates the data from the cash register onto the video, allowing someone reviewing the video to compare the amount being rung up with the item actually being sold. Users can then search for video clips by transaction like searching by date or motion event.

PoS Integration

PoS integration is valuable for QoS restaurants but can add complexity and cost. The simplest way for PoS integration is a text overlay from a device that marks it over an analog feed; this can work with any recorder but cannot be searched digitally. Many recorders, especially more expensive ones, support direct integration from PoS systems. Specifiers should check (1) the capabilities of the recorders they are considering and (2) support for the specific PoS system that the QSR is using.

Food Preparation Areas

For managing production, cameras should give a general overview of food preparation areas. This can help alert QSR operators as to unsafe or unsanitary working practices, and ensures that all employees are present and working.

Offices And Safes

Because QSRs deal with so much cash, opportunities exist for a manager to skim cash from the safe. Therefore, a camera should be pointed at the safe, showing the face of the person opening and closing it. Some QSR operators prefer the code entry not be visible to the camera, so an employee with access to the camera feed should not be able to figure out the code.

Policies should be put into place ensuring that all register pulls are done and all cash is counted in view of the cameras.

Stockrooms And Storage Areas

In order to prevent employee theft, stockrooms and storage areas should be covered with a surveillance camera. If several storage areas are clustered together, it is sufficient to cover the entrance and exists to all of them at once. For example, a hallway leading to a dry storage area, a walk in refrigerator, and a deep freezer can all be covered with a single camera. This is because most things worth stealing are usually large, bulky, and difficult to conceal.

Covering stockrooms and storage areas can also tell QSR operators if employees are congregating there during work hours.

Restrooms

Some QSRs place cameras outside public restrooms in order to discourage vandalism and drug sales or consumption. Cameras should be aimed to record people entering and leaving the restroom, but should not be able to see inside the bathroom itself, even when the door opens and closes.

Drive Through Lane

Some QSRs with drive through windows use surveillance cameras to monitor the amount of vehicles on line. These cameras do not need to be very detailed, as they are for operational purposes rather than security. They should be capable of  True WDR as they will be operating under variable lighting conditions.

Minimizing Camera Counts

QSRs often have very low security budgets, making surveillance a hard sell. Minimizing the number of cameras required by placing them creatively increases an integrator’s chance of having their bid accepted. When preparing a quote for a QSR, look for mounting spots that will allow a single camera to cover more than one critical spot.

Appliances

Given low budgets and the lack of IT infrastructure on-site, QSRs typically purchase NVR / DVR appliances rather than COTS servers with 3rd party VMS software. To the extent that QSRs use VMS software, generally it will be on the company’s own appliances. This simplifies IT maintenance and often reduces space relative to deploying a server.

Protecting The Recorder

Access to the NVR or DVR should be restricted and protected. Often, employees are left to work alone with little or no supervision. Allowing them access to the video recorder raises the possibility that they might erase or destroy video, even if they do not have a password. Thieves may steal the recorder, leaving the user with no evidence. Video recorders are often placed inside a lock box in the office, preferably mounted out of sight.

Local Monitor / Viewing

Many QSR operators prefer having a local monitor showing a live display in the office. This is to allow a manager to keep an eye on operations without allowing access to the recorder itself and without having to deploy a separate PC or computer to watch. Many, but not all, recorders support local live monitoring viewing. This should be checked to verify that one’s preferred recording supports.

Public View Monitors

Some QSRs keep a large monitor in a prominent location near the entrance as a public- view monitor. A public-view monitor allows employees to keep an eye on parts of the restaurant they cannot physically observe. In addition, it sends a clear message that surveillance video is in place, reassuring legitimate customers and discouraging potential thieves.

Remote Viewing

Many fast food locations are owned by multi-unit franchisees or corporations. These customers require offsite viewing, and tend to want the ability to view video from multiple locations at the same time.

Upstream bandwidth availability can be a key factor as many locations have limited bandwidth with transaction / financial information having a priority over what can be very bandwidth-intensive remote video streaming. To that end, bandwidth throttles built into the local recorder are often desired to ensure that the DVR / NVR does not impact or slow the QSR’s other services.

Remote Access

The most common way QSRs access remotely is via the store(s) own network that is typically connected to management buildings / facilities. Increasingly, QSR management wants remote access (outside of the store’s network). Some video surveillance systems are now offering remote / cloud access facilitating viewing of video / the system outside of the store’s network.

Remote Monitoring

Some QSRs employ remote monitoring services that monitor and/or provide responses in the case of an emergency or robbery. Additionally, they may integrate and audit exceptions and PoS data to identify employee theft or issues.

 

For more information please feel free to contact us.

Based on an article of Ari Frenthal (IPVM)

Anti theft system installed at Seal & Go

Seal & Go opened its first complete seal and travel store of the world at Hato International Airport. Seal & Go operates this store in cooperation with Paolo Salotto. We are proud that this world wide operating company selected Innotech to install several security systems including a RF Anti-shoplifting system of DIALOC-ID in their new store. Welcome at Curacao and we wish you a successful operation.

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We are very excited to launch our new website Innotech. Please check out our Solutions page where you can find Security solutions for your home office or lot. From private to commercial solutions Innotech offers customized security solutions to their clients. Call or click today. We will be happy to assist you.